Glossary of Terms

  • AHM Arabic Health Measures

  • Measure in AHM, measure refers to any instrument requiring the use of verbal or written language. Thus it includes questionnaires, screening/diagnostic tools, or performance evaluations or checklists that are written or reported verbally.

  • Acronym an abbreviation formed from the initial letters of the measure name

  • Keyword a word or words you are searching for. This will return matches found anywhere in a measures summary with your keywords

  • Database a set of information stored in computer that is organized to make it easy to manage, access and update

  • Area of assessment describes the principal area of assessment or domain the measure is examining (e.g. activities of daily living, quality of life, pain, health service). See full list of available areas of assessment

  • Condition describes the diagnosis, disorder or situation the measure is meant to be used for (e.g. cancer, rheumatology, school). See full list of available conditions

  • Description of measure describes the purpose of the measure. May include how it was developed.

  • Author the first named author of a publication such as a research article.

  • Journal the name of the journal

  • Article abstract An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, it is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose.

  • Number of items how many questions the instrument contains.

  • Time to complete measure how many minutes it takes to complete the instrument.

  • Training required if yes, formal training is required before a measure can be used.

  • Availability of measure availability of measure has been categorized as free (a link to the measure will be provided), pay (a fee is required to use the measure), contact author (if measure is not found, contact information of the first or corresponding author will be provided).

  • Country of sample the country from which the sample was collected

  • Relevant literature literature that describes the translation or psychometric tests used to develop an Arabic health measure. A summary including; first author's name, publication year, the population age, gender, condition, country, sample size, methodology used, and a link to the article and measure.

  • Psychometric testing tests of reliability and validity of an instrument

  • Methodology a list of the research methods used to translate and psychometrically assess a measure.

  • Adaptation Cross-cultural adaptation of an instrument for use in a new country, culture, and/or language. This necessitates use of a unique method, to reach equivalence between the original source and target versions of the instrument.

  • Valid indicates the degree to which the instrument measures what it is intended to measure.

  • Validity types:
    • Face validity the extent to which an instrument is subjectively viewed as covering the concept it purports to measure.

    • Content validity refers to the extent to which a measure represents all features of a given construct.

    • Factorial validity a method based on correlations between items in a scale that indicate a single construct is being measured.

    • Construct validity the degree to which a test measures what it claims to be measuring

    • Convergent validity the degree to which two measures of constructs that theoretically should be related, are in fact related.

    • Discriminant /divergent validity tests whether two measurements that should not be related are actually unrelated.

    • Criterion validity the extent to which a measure is related to an outcome. Criterion validity is often divided into concurrent and predictive validity.

    • Concurrent validity a measure of how well a particular test correlates with a previously validated measure (gold standard).

    • Predictive validity the extent to which a score on a scale or test predicts scores on some criterion measure.

    • Cross validation Technique for assessing how the results of a statistical analysis will generalize to an independent data set.

    • Linguistic validation the process of investigating the reliability, conceptual equivalence, and content validity of translations

    • Delphi technique method for achieving convergence of opinion concerning real-world knowledge solicited from experts within a certain topic areas.

    • Translational validity or representation validity is how well have the constructs been translated into measureable outcomes

    • Normative data data that characterize what is usual in a defined population at a specific point or period of time.


  • Reliable indicates the degree to which an assessment tool produces consistent results

  • Reliability types:
    • Internal consistency a measure of how well the items on a test measure the same construct or idea

    • Test-retest reliability a measure of how consistent the results of a test are over time.

    • Inter-observer reliability indicates the degree to which different observers give consistent estimates of the same phenomenon.

    • Intra-observer reliability the stability of an individual's observation of a phenomenon at two or more intervals of time.


  • Measures wish list this is a list of measures that AHM users have indicated they would like to have translated/validated to Arabic. Our goal is to prompt researchers to consider choosing these measures for a translation and validation project.






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Articles last updated: June 2019