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Linguistic translation and cultural adaptation of functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-tuberculosis instrument into arabic language

Article type: Published abstract


Objectives: Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy- General (FACT-G) was adapted to develop a disease specific subscale for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients in Iraq. The current study aimed to linguistically validate Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy- Tuberculosis (FACIT-TB) measurement scale into Arabic language and to produce a translated version which was conceptually equivalent to the original U.S. English version for use in clinical practice and research. Methods: The linguistic validation process comprised of general procedures derived from internationally accepted guideline for linguistic validation and cultural adaptation of FACIT measurement system; including 1) Forward translation, 2) Reconciliation, 3) Back translation, 4) Review, 5) Spelling and grammatical verification. Furthermore, the translated questionnaire was pretested at Thoracic and Respiratory Diseases Specialist Center in Baghdad, Iraq. Results: Issues encountered during the linguistic validation process of FACIT-TB into Arabic language pertained to linguistic and semantic nuance were resolved. Pretesting was completed in seven Arabic-speaking TB patients with a mean age of 40.14 years. In addition, respondent need about 15.35 minutes (range 10-20 minutes) to complete the questionnaire. In general, respondent reported no significant problem with understanding the content of the Arabic version of FACIT-TB. Furthermore, they reported no culturally-irrelevant item. The instrument was found to be comprehensible clear and relevant to the value of PTB patients in Iraq. Conclusions: Linguistic validation of FACIT-TB into Arabic language was completed according to a recognized and rigorous double-back translation method to achieve, to the greatest degree possible, equivalence of meaning and measurement between the two different country versions. It will provide an additional parameter to evaluate the effectiveness of TB program for patients in Iraq. Health care providers in the national TB control program should make a judicious utilization of this instrument in helping patients to cope with their illness and in predicting TB treatment outcomes.

Full citation

Dujaili, J.A., et al., Linguistic translation and cultural adaptation of functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-tuberculosis instrumentinto arabic language. Value in Health, 2013. 16(7): p. A602.


Methods Condition Gender Age Country Setting Sample size
pulmonary tuberculosis Iraq
Healthcare Facility 7

Number of items

Not available


Measure does not require training

Required time

6-30 min

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Articles last updated: December 2020