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Development, validation and psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Orofacial Esthetic Scale: OES-Ar

Article type: Published article


PURPOSE: This study aimed at developing the Arabic version of the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES-Ar) and to investigate its psychometric properties among Arabic-speaking population with and without esthetic impairments. METHODS: Translation and cross-cultural adaptation was done according to the standard guidelines. Internal consistency was assessed on 230 participants. For test-retest reliability, 50 subjects with natural teeth were recalled within a period of 2 weeks. Validity of the OES-Ar was tested by construct, convergent, and discriminant validity tests. Responsiveness to esthetic changes was assessed in 60 patients. RESULTS: The results showed excellent internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha value of 0.92 and inter-item correlation average value of 0.60. The ICC values ranged from 0.87 to 0.96 which indicated excellent agreement. Construct validity of the OES-Ar was confirmed to be one-factor structure (one-dimensional). For convergent validity, a significant correlation was found between OES summary score and overall impression of the orofacial esthetic as well as between OES summary score and the summary score of the three questions of the OHIP-49Ar related to esthetic. The discriminant validity test revealed significant differences between different study groups (P<0.001). Responsiveness to treatment was confirmed by significant differences between pre- and post-treatment OES total summary score (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The OES-Ar has excellent psychometric properties making it valuable instrument to assess orofacial esthetics in Arabic-speaking patients.

Full citation

Alhajj, M. N., et al. (2017). "Development, validation and psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Orofacial Esthetic Scale: OES-Ar." J Prosthodont Res 61(3): 290-296.


Methods Condition Gender Age Country Setting Sample size
Both Yemen

Number of items

8 items


Measure does not require training

Required time

Less than 5 min

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Articles last updated: December 2020