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Development and validation of an Arabic version of the visual functioning index VF-14 for cataract patients

Article type: Published article


Purpose: To develop and validate an Arabic version of the Visual Functioning Index (VF-14) for patients with cataracts. Materials and Methods: The VF-14 was translated into Arabic by an epidemiologist and an ophthalmologist, both fluent in Arabic and English. The VF-14 was administered to patients diagnosed with cataract at two hospitals in Egypt and two hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Patients were also administered three other forms; the cataract symptoms score (CSS); global measure of vision; and cataract medical form. Internal reliability and external validity were measured. Index sensitivity to visual acuity was detected and potential effective factors were investigated. Correlation analyses were performed. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The translated VF-14 was consistent and reliable ( = 0.763, p < 0.0001). It was also statistically significantly sensitive to vision (p < 0.0001). The mean calculated index was 62.18 19.34, and was highly correlated with; CSS and other scores (p < 0.0001, all cases). Factors that may affect the index are; age, sex, vision, wearing glasses, type, position, and severity of cataract. Conclusion: The Arabic VF 14 is a reliable and valid tool for evaluation of both visual functioning and quality of visual life among cataract patients. It is also sensitive to changes in visual acuity, demographic, and clinical characteristics.

Full citation

Mousa, A., et al. (2012). "Development and validation of an Arabic version of the visual functioning index VF-14 for cataract patients." Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology 19(3): 309-313.


Methods Condition Gender Age Country Setting Sample size
Patients scheduled for cataract surgery within 3 months Both 63.41 ± 11.19 Egypt
Saudi Arabia
Healthcare Facility 1380

Number of items

18 items


Measure does not require training

Required time

Less than 5 min

Access measure


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Articles last updated: December 2020