Translation into modern standard Arabic, cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties’ evaluation of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) in Arabic-speaking athletes with Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury
Background: The Lower Extremity Functional Scale evaluates the functional status of patients that have lower extremity conditions of musculoskeletal origin. Regional Arabic dialects often create barriers to clear communication and comparative research. We aimed to cross-culturally adapt the Lower Extremity Functional Scale in modern standard Arabic that is widely used and understood in the Middle East and North Africa region, and assess its psychometric properties. Methods: Cross-cultural adaptation followed a combination of recommended guidelines. For psychometric evaluation 150 patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury and 65 asymptomatic individuals were recruited. All measurement properties as indicated by the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement Instruments recommendations were evaluated, including content-relevance analysis, structural validity, longitudinal reproducibility, anchor- and distribution-based methods of responsiveness, as well as the longitudinal pattern of change of Lower Extremity Functional Scale in anterior cruciate ligament injured patients’ functional status. Results: The questionnaire presented excellent internal consistency (α = 0.96), reliability (0.80–0.98), and good convergent validity (ρ = 0.85). For reproducibility testing: minimal detectable change was 9.26 points; for responsiveness assessment: minimal clinically important difference was 9 points and presented moderate effect sizes (Glass’Δ = 0.71, Cohen’s d = 0.81). Its unidimensionality was not confirmed and an exploratory factor analysis indicated a 2-factor solution explaining 78.1% of the variance. Conclusion: The Arabic Lower Extremity Functional Scale presented acceptable psychometric properties comparable to the original version. The Arabic version of Lower Extremity Functional Scale can be used in research and clinical practice to assess the functional status of Arabic-patients suffering an anterior cruciate ligament injury
Korakakis, V., et al. (2019). "Translation into modern standard Arabic, cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties’ evaluation of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) in Arabic-speaking athletes with Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury." PLoS ONE 14(6): 1.
Measure does not require training