About article

Validation of the Arabic Version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS)

Article type: Published article


Background Assessment of the adverse effects of oral health problems on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is essential to ensure the well-being of children. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) is an instrument that was designed to assess caregivers’ perceptions of OHRQoL in preschool children. Although it has been translated into many languages, it has yet to be validated in Arabic. Therefore, this study aimed to translate this questionnaire to Arabic (A-ECOHIS) and test its psychometric properties. Methods Questionnaire responses from three samples of caregivers of preschool children ≤ 6 years of age were collected: (i) community-based (n = 422), from preschools selected as a stratified random sample; (ii) clinic-based, from those seeking pediatric dental care at a university clinic (n = 246); and (iii) a test-retest sample (n = 68), a clinic-based group of caregivers who completed questionnaires twice about siblings who were not receiving dental care. Children received a dental examination to assess their decayed, missed, filled teeth (dmft) scores. Convergent validity was evaluated by assessing the A-ECOHIS scores in relation to the response to a global question. Discriminant validity was evaluated by comparing the scores of children with varying levels of oral disease. Internal consistency was assessed by calculating Cronbach’s alpha, and the test-retest reliability was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Results The A-ECOHIS scores of the questionnaire sections and the global oral health rating were significantly correlated; Spearman correlation coefficients were, r = 0.55, P ≤ 0.01 (overall score), r = 0.54, P ≤ 0.01 (child section), and r = 0.51, P ≤ 0.01 (family section). The mean A-ECOHIS scores were also statistically significantly higher in children with higher dmft scores compared with lower dmft, and in the clinic-based sample compared with the community sample. The Cronbach’s alpha value of the the child, family sections and overall questionnaire were, 0.80, 0.78, and 0.85, respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) of A-ECOHIS was 0.86. Conclusion The A-ECOHIS performed well on all psychometric tests to which it was applied. Thus, it is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used in Arabic-speaking caregivers of preschoolers aged 2 to 6 years.

Full citation

Farsi NJ, El-Housseiny AA, Farsi DJ, Farsi NM. Validation of the Arabic Version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). BMC oral health. 2017;17(1):60.


Methods Condition Gender Age Country Setting Sample size
caregiver of preschool children Both Saudi Arabia
Commuinty 468

Number of items

13 items


Measure does not require training

Required time

Less than 5 min

© 2021 | Privacy Policy
All Rights Reserved

Notify me for new AHM projects / news

Contact Us

Articles last updated: March 2020