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Arabic version of the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index.

Article type: Published article


OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to translate the original English version of the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) into an Arabic version, and to test the validity and reliability of the translated instrument (GOHAI-Ar) for use among the elderly in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: The 12-item GOHAI was translated into Arabic using the back-translation technique and performing a preliminary test to determine the comprehensibility and readability of the Arabic language version. A total of 156 elderly patients answered the questionnaire, and underwent a clinical examination by one calibrated dentist. Information on subjects' socio-demographic background and oral health conditions was collected. Convergent validity was evaluated by identifying the associations between perceived oral health status, general health status, perceived need for dental care and GOHAI-Ar scores. Discriminant validity was examined by comparing the GOHAI-Ar scores and six oral health parameters. Internal consistency was measured by Cronbach's alpha. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and weighted kappa. Factor structure of GOHAI-Ar was evaluated using principal component factor analysis. RESULTS: The mean GOHAI-Ar was 32.1 (SD 12.2; range 11-59). Mean GOHAI-Ar scores were higher for the elderly who rated their oral and general health as good. Subjects with perceived dental treatment needs had a lower mean GOHAI-Ar score than those without any such needs. The caries experience, number of missing teeth, OHI-S score, number of pathologically mobile teeth and number of oral lesions were negatively correlated with the GOHAI-Ar score. The Cronbach's alpha (0.93) indicated a high degree of internal consistency and homogeneity between items. The ICC for GOHAI-Ar was 0.95, the weighted kappa coefficient for individual items varied between 0.42 and 0.71, and the correlation coefficients for the 12 items were above 0.70. Factor analysis didn't support the expected dimensions of the index, and only one factor was found at eigenvalue greater than 1. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest an excellent reliability and validity of GOHAI-Ar. Further research is needed to assess the value of this instrument in oral health-related quality of life studies in Arabic elderly population.

Full citation

Atieh, M. A. (2008). "Arabic version of the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index." Gerodontology 25(1): 34-41.


Methods Condition Gender Age Country Setting Sample size
elderly patients Saudi Arabia
Healthcare Facility 156

Number of items

12 items


Measure does not require training

Required time

Less than 5 min

Access measure


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Articles last updated: March 2020