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The development and validation of the Arabic Scale of Insomnia (ASI)

Article type: Published article


Study Objectives: To assess the psychometric parameters of the Arabic Scale of Insomnia (ASI), and to report its descriptive statistics and gender differences.Methods: Kuwaiti, non-clinical secondary school students (N=5,044), college students (N=2,210) and employees (N = 1,247) were recruited. The ASI has 12 items. Each statement is answered on a 5-point intensity scale, during the most recent month.Results: Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.70 to 0.83, and the alpha ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, denoting good temporal stability and internal consistency. Criterion-related validity (2 criteria) ranged from 0.57 to 0.94, and the loadings of the ASI onto a general factor of insomnia ranged from 0.92 to 0.95, indicating good convergent and factorial validity. Two factors of the ASI were disclosed: Consequences of Insomnia, and Difficulty in Initiating and Maintaining Sleep. Women had a significantly higher total mean score than that of their male counterparts. Male employees had a lower mean score than adolescents and college students.Conclusions: The ASI has good reliability and validity. Because of its brevity, it may be recommended for use in research in the prevalence of insomnia.

Full citation

Abdel-Khalek, A. M. (2008). "The development and validation of the Arabic Scale of Insomnia (ASI)." Sleep & Hypnosis 10(1): 3-10.


Methods Condition Gender Age Country Setting Sample size
Non-clinical secondary school students, college students, employees Kuwait

Number of items

12 items


Measure does not require training

Required time

Less than 5 min

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Articles last updated: December 2020